вівторок, 31 серпня 2010 р.

Ugly Beauty - Fatty Ham :)



















































































http://nadiary.diary.ru/p103420682.htm

Body Image Problems Not Just in Women

Men may still hesitate to ask for directions or give up the TV remote, but they're apparently crossing the gender line into another area once firmly dominated by women: Obsessing about their body image and developing eating disorders.
In the past two decades, reports the British Medical Journal, the number of men who openly report dissatisfaction with their physical appearance has tripled -- and today, nearly as many men as women say they are unhappy with how they look. Meanwhile, therapists report seeing 50% more men for evaluation and treatment for eating disorders than they did in the 1990s.
And the root of this trend may be a new type of disorder -- an obsession for six-pack abs and bulging biceps that seems especially common in athletes and other fitness enthusiasts.
Though statistics show that about 10% of men suffer from the two best-known eating disorders -- anorexia and bulimia -- a growing body of evidence suggests that men may be especially vulnerable to muscle dysmorphia, a condition in which one obsesses about lacking muscle definition and mass, even with a muscular body. This condition is not unlike that satirized in Saturday Night Live sketches featuring the Schwarzenegger-like, sweatsuit-wearing Hans and Franz, whose mission was to "pump you up."
Laughs aside, the problem is so real that in the March/April issue of ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal, published by the American College of Sports Medicine, Ball State University nutritionist Katherine A. Beals, PhD, RD, highlights the growing trend among fitness buffs and offers advice to athletic trainers on spotting the problem in weight lifters and other fitness center regulars. "Millions of boys and men today harbor a secret obsession about their looks and are endangering their health by engaging in excessive exercise, bingeing and purging rituals, steroid abuse, and overuse of nutritional and dietary [products]," she writes.
Although a relatively new area of medical research, many experts believe this disorder is grossly underreported. But those at particular risk, says Beals: men who constantly seek instant results from workouts and frequently check their progress in mirrors or on scales. Though her findings are geared to athletes -- or those who want to be -- others say that less-athletic men are not immune to muscle dysmorphia and related body image problems.
"As far as we know, all men are prone to these types of issues," says Katharine Phillips, MD, director of the Body Image Program at Brown University's Butler Hospital and author of several books on men's body image problems, including The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Body Obsession. "The reasons why haven't been well studied, but one factor may be the availability of anabolic steroids, which are potentially dangerous but can make men become much more muscular than Mother Nature ever intended."
Another possible reason being explored: Feelings of threatened masculinity. "Perhaps this is the one domain left where men can feel like men, since women can do everything that men can do, except they can't bench-press hundreds of pounds," she tells WebMD. "What has happened over the years is there's an increasing emphasis on men's appearance, and in particular on looking muscular, and it coincides very nicely with the increasing equality women have attained in society."
Whatever the causes, and likely there are many -- including life experiences or even genetics -- there's no denying that some men are feeling the pressure. Even GI Joe dolls have bulked up in recent years.
"In women with eating disorders, the focus is usually on thinness, but men tend to want to be muscular and gain weight," says Catherine Loomis, PhD, psychologist at the Eating Disorders Center at Rogers Memorial Hospital in Oconomowoc, Wis., one of the nation's few treatment centers that specifically treats men with eating disorder and body image problems. "A lot of it has to do with cultural pressures placed on men to look a certain way. As a result, they may develop a fear of certain foods and anxiety over the way they eat."
Even boys and teens -- especially those who are overweight -- are suffering emotional trauma in their quest for bigger muscles, and setting themselves for possible future medical problems. "They may try to eat lot of protein but limit fat, and they often develop a fear of foods and an anxiety that results from restrictive eating," she tells WebMD. "Often, these are people who are perfectionists and have or could develop obsessive-compulsive disorder."
So when do men cross the line from a healthy workout to an unhealthy and potentially dangerous obsession? One hint: Exercising more than once or twice each day, with no days off from weight lifting.
"I usually note four points that determine whether you've crossed the line or not," says Roberto Olivardia, PhD, another Adonis Complex author and psychologist at McLean Hospital and at Harvard Medical School who specializes in men's body image problems:
  • Distortion of body image: "If you see yourself as being fat or puny, but others around you say that you're muscular, that's a red flag," he tells WebMD.
  • Exercise interferes with other areas of life. "If your relationships, job, or school suffer because of your exercise routines, that's a warning sign."
  • Your harm yourself in pursuit of fitness. "If you're taking steroids, tearing joints or ligaments because of overtraining, or you're fainting because you're not taking in enough liquids, that's a sign of trouble."
  • Your self-esteem is based solely on your appearance. "If you feel that the perfect body is the only way you can feel good about yourself, that's another warning sign. You need to get self-esteem from many areas in your life -- and not only from your muscles."

http://www.menstuff.org/issues/byissue/bodyimage.html#mentoo

Ugliness. Women En Large


http://laurietobyedison.com/galleryWEL.asp?page=1

понеділок, 30 серпня 2010 р.

Marfan Dance (skinny i am)

Anorexia - Boy Part 1

Triggers for Boy Anorexia

I have been asked many times “Did you ever find out what caused Joe’s anorexia”. The straightforward answer is no. However we have a few ideas about what could have been contributing factors:
  1. He went through a very early puberty. It is no coincidence that many cases of anorexia start in puberty, both in boys and girls. With girls the reason seems more obvious as they look in the mirror and see a more rounded shape developing. Boys tend to be more happy with their developing more muscular physique, but if a boy has a very early puberty, he might not appreciate the changes that are happening to his body and making him different from his peers. In addition the raging hormones can trigger irrational behaviour in either sex.
  2. Joe was and having recovered from his illness, is still, a very talented sportsman. This is his explanation. “ I thought I would be an even better sportsman if I lost a little weight. I felt really good when I lost weight and to start with all my friends commented on how good I looked. The trouble was it got out of control and I found I couldn’t stop losing weight. I just got scared of eating in case I put weight back on”. There are numerous cases of sportsmen restricting their diet for their sport and developing an eating disorder. Consider jockeys, gymnasts, light weight boxers, long distance runners, cyclists and ballet dancers who can all justify restricting their diet to ensure they maintain an “optimum” weight for their sport.
  3. Joe is the eldest child of a complex family. He has one sibling, three half siblings and three stepsiblings. It is likely that he felt he was always the last in the pecking order of all these younger children. For years he may have been craving more of our attention without us realising. He always seemed such a happy boy with a healthy appetite, and who loved his sport. When I read “ The Best Little Girl in the World “ by Steven Levenkron it made me realise how an outwardly happy and well balanced child could actually be feeling very lonely and left out by the demands of other children within the family.
  4. Research has shown that pre term babies are more likely to suffer from behavioural difficulties including eating disorders. Joe was born six weeks prematurely so this could have been a contributory factor.
There could have been many other triggers of Joe’s anorexia, but he didn’t bring them to our attention. Of course we agonised about such things as our family structure, was he being overstretched at school, was he being bullied etc? It is important to note that anorexia can appear in any family setting and in any social situation. We are a large complex family, but many small nuclear families, who appear to have no problems, have been affected by a visit from anorexia. Children from all walks of life are vulnerable. Some typical triggers might include:
  1. An overweight child being teased or bullied at school. Comments might be made in jest and in a friendly manner, but then taken to heart.
  2. A highly academic child might be bullied by less able children and see food as a way to control his life.
  3. A less academic child might see weight loss as the only thing he can achieve positive results with.
  4. A child whose parents are constantly dieting might follow suit.
  5. A child who has seen an overweight parent or relative suffer a heart attack might seek to prevent this happening to him by cutting back on food.
  6. Abuse within the family often leads to an eating disorder.
  7. A death in the family can create a feeling of helplessness and loss of control. A child might find comfort in having control over food.
  8. An overprotective or over dominant mother has often been blamed in the past for her child’s eating disorder.
  9. A passive or absent father has also been often cited as a reason for a child developing eating problems.
  10. Social pressures might cause a child to start dieting and exercising. Within our culture young men who have a slim and athletic build are portrayed as being popular, attractive, healthy and successful in life. A young boy with puppy fat might feel he has to take drastic measures to achieve this image as soon as possible.
As well as the above-mentioned social triggers, eating disorders can also be triggered by chemical or biological factors. Chemical imbalances in the brain can lead to all sorts of behavioural disorders. It is also increasingly believed that there may be a genetic link, and certainly eating disorders seem to run in families.
The bottom line is that every case is different. No one type of person gets an eating disorder, and no two people with an eating disorder are exactly alike. The common features seem to be that people who develop eating disorders suffer from a very low self esteem, and many find it difficult to express their true feelings or explain what is making them unhappy.
Of course we will never really know exactly what triggered Joe’s illness, and like most parents of anorexic children we went through many months of agonising over what we could have done better to prevent our son almost starving himself to death. Joe’s key worker made me feel much better when she made two points in our first meeting:
  1. It is much more important to look forward, not back. What caused Joe’s illness may well be totally irrelevant to his recovery and his future. Of course if we discovered, during the course of his therapy, that there was something in his life that was making him unhappy then we could endeavour to change it. In many cases of anorexia the initial triggers remain a complete mystery.
  2. All families are dysfunctional in some way. However simple or complex your family set up, there are always disagreements and periods where some members are less happy than others are. Of course we should examine our family set up, and try to change if necessary, but we shouldn’t assume that there must be something terribly wrong with our family simply because our son had developed anorexia. Family therapy (more of this later) is a very good forum for examining the family set up and discussing if any changes might be beneficial. 

Other Eating Disorders

Like females, boys and men suffer from a wide range of eating disorders, not just anorexia.
The most common are:
bulimia (men account for around 15% of cases)
binge eating disorder (men account for 60 to 70% of cases)
compulsive exercise (also known as bigorexia)
EDNOS (eating disorders not otherwise specified)

Whilst the different illnesses have different symptoms and effects, many of the approaches to self-help and treatment will be similar to those used for anorexics. At the end of the day the main aim for anyone suffering from an eating disorder is to re-establish healthy eating patterns, maintain a healthy weight, and to regain self confidence and self esteem. Much of what is written in the self help and treatment options section of my book Boys Get Anorexia Too should be useful for the carer of a boy  or man suffering from one of these other eating disorders. There is a chapter in my book  which  contains a brief description of each illness, what to look out for, and the effects of the illness.
 I also recommend reading :
1)Fit to Die by Anna Paterson, published in 2004 by Lucky Duck. In this book the author draws the readers attention to the characteristic and special difficulties for men with eating disorders.
2)The Invisible Man: A Self help guide for men with eating disorders, compulsive exercise and bigorexia (By John Morgan Publ:Routledge) This book applies the latest research to produce a practical, problem focused self help manual for men with eating disorders and body image problems. John Morgan has used his wealth of experience in the eating disorder arena to produce a book that really understands the issues men face and that provides a very readable guide for men seeking to combat their eating and body image issues.

What is Anorexia and What are the Effects?

Many men and boys are affected by anorexia and several studies published over the last few years suggest that males account for up to 25% of cases of anorexia. It is not just a girl's disease! 

Anorexia nervosa is the best known of a range of illnesses classified as eating disorders. Anorexia nervosa literally means “loss of appetite for nervous reasons”. The main diagnostic criteria for anorexia is that there is a weight loss leading to a body weight of at least 15 percent below the normal weight for height or age, although anorexia itself is much more complex than just loss of appetite or weight loss. Certainly those with anorexia will deliberately starve themselves until they are very ill, and in a small number of cases until they die. Anorexics are terrified of gaining weight and if they feel they have eaten even a tiny morsel too much they will exercise obsessively to get rid of the calories. They are often obsessed with the amount of calories in each type of food. They will often encourage those around them to eat more, whilst continually cutting back on their food intake. Anorexics desperately want to be in control, and the one thing they feel they can control is their food intake. Sadly they soon find that they have lost control and that their anorexia is controlling every aspect of their lives. When he was well on his way to recovery Joe said to me “Mummy, I just wanted to lose a bit of weight for my sport and it just got completely out of control”.
But it is much more than just about food. The sufferer is normally deeply unhappy about some aspect of his life, and will have a very low self-esteem. Many sufferers feel that their illness gives them the attention from their loved ones that perhaps they felt they weren’t getting before.  Finding out what has made the sufferer unhappy or craving attention can be very difficult and sometimes impossible to work out. There are literally hundreds of reasons why young people suffer from anorexia nervosa. The most important thing to remember is to look forward, not back. Often the cause is irrelevant to the recovery and most anorexics do eventually recover.
What are the effects of self-starvation? A period of sustained weight loss and malnutrition will result in the patient suffering from many symptoms, and damage can be severe. There are many symptoms of anorexia, and not every patient suffers from all of them. I mention some of the more common symptoms below, and you will find that the more you read, the more symptoms you will discover. It may well be worth alerting your son as to what could happen to his body if he continues to lose weight, and be malnourished over a long period of time.
The short-term effects of anorexia are usually apparent fairly early on. In girls, as well as periods stopping, their ovaries and uterus may start to shrink, and in general growth stops. In boys you don’t have such a clear indicator as loss of periods, but ongoing puberty may be arrested or slowed down, and your son may revert to a more childlike state. This is certainly what happened with Joe. As he lost weight he looked younger, he spoke more quietly and became much less physically active. Many anorexics quickly become depressed, may suffer from poor concentration, and lose powers of memory. They may also become irrational, and unreasonable, as a result of subtle changes to the balance of chemicals within the body, and most will suffer from a feeling of low self-esteem. Some develop an unsightly fine downy hair on their back and face called lanugo. It is one of the body’s ways of keeping warm. Muscles may become weak after a period of malnutrition, and major nerves can become prone to pressure damage. The heart starts to pump less efficiently, and this often leads to an abnormally low pulse rate and blood pressure. This in turn causes dizzy spells, and the sufferer constantly feels cold and tired. A poor diet may also lead to anaemia, which also causes tiredness and the sufferer becomes very pale. A poor diet may also lead to constipation, a feeling of bloatedness, and tummy pains, which can be severe. Joe had episodes when he lay curled up on the ground screaming in agony, having eaten just a few morsels of food. All of these effects reverse quite quickly once normal eating patterns are resolved.
The long-term effects of anorexia are not so obvious, but can be of greater concern. In girls long term loss of periods can lead to infertility, and the abnormally low hormone levels can lead to osteoporosis, resulting in bones that are weak and can fracture very easily. Other hormones such as thyroid and growth hormones can also be affected by long term starvation. The reduced hormone levels have similar effects in boys in terms of infertility, bone density, growth etc. Internal organs are inevitably affected by a lengthy period of starvation, and in particular the heart and kidneys may suffer irreversible damage. Circulation of blood around the body can also be dramatically restricted, following a lengthy period of malnutrition, and in severe cases this can lead to tissue death in the extremities. Many long-term anorexics have suffered from gangrene, and some have needed below the knee amputations. Unfortunately some anorexics die but thankfully the percentage is quite low. Some can no longer cope with their illness and take their own life, others die from organ failure, but I must stress these are very extreme cases. Many anorexics recover and live perfectly normal lives. Many learn to live with their anorexia. 

http://www.boyanorexia.com/WhatIs.htm 

пʼятниця, 27 серпня 2010 р.

Models Died of Anorexia Nervosa

This is an old news but worth mentioning. Brazilian model Ana Carolina Reston, 21, died of anorexia nervosa, Brazilian media reported.

Reston was 1.72 meter tall and weighing only 40 kilogram. She was admitted because of kidney malfunction. Her condition became more serious and deteriorated into a generalized infection that led to her death. Hospital said the infection was caused by anorexia nervosa, a disorder characterized by an abnormal fear of becoming obese, an aversion to food and severe weight loss. Reston’ body mass index (BMI) was about 13.4 at the time of her death. This figure is way below the index value of 16 which the World Health Organization considers to be starvation.

Reston was the second model reported to die from anorexia-related complications in 2006. Luisel Ramos, a 22-year-old Uruguayan model, suffered a heart attack in August 2006 after living on lettuce leaves and Diet Coke for 3 months. Ramos had been told by a modeling agency she could “make it big” if she lost a “significant” amount of weight. But before she really made it big, she collapsed while going for a final costume change and died.

After Ramos’ death, the Madrid Fashion Week (held in September 2006) set a minimum BMI of 18 for all models. In other words, a model measuring 170 centimetres tall had to weigh at least 52 kilograms. If that new policy were to be enforced worldwide, British supermodel Kate Moss will lost her job.

In September 2006, a Spanish fashion show responded to such criticism by banning models with a body mass index of less than 18.

Girls pay more attention to the models’ body than the clothes. Becoming models is most girls’ dream. The reality show of “America’s Next Top Model” is a good example.

May be we should not blame it on models. It is the society. Can we ask the designers to make the clothes bigger and not shrink them smaller without asking the models to slim down more and more, just to fit into the tiny clothes? The model agents should stop insisting in getting the figures of 32 (inches for bust), 23 (inches for waist) and 34 (inches for hips). The average size of an eight-year-old kid is already 22 inches.
Nobody remembers Karen Carpenter anymore. After few years, we probably will forget about Ana Carolina Reston and Luisel Ramos. Actually, what sadden me even more is that Reston was 21 and Ramos was 22 when they died. They are so young, aren’t they?


Short note: Karen Carpenter is one of the members of The Carpenters, one of the famous groups in 70s. She is remembered as the first famous person to die from anorexia nervosa.

http://munfitnessblog.com/models-died-of-anorexia-nervosa/

Fashion Victims- Anorexic Models

Many teenage girls want to look pretty and thin like the top models on TV. In order to look like the super models, they believe that they would be happier and more successful if they were thin like the models in the front cover page of a magazine. Girls start to starve themselves, and avoid high-calorie foods and exercise constantly. And some people eat huge amounts of food, but they throw up soon after eating, which is what we call bulimia. Some may even take laxatives or diuretics (water pills) to keep from gaining weight. By using such cruel and unhealthy methods to loose weight is very harmful to your body.

















What You Need To Know About Anorexic Nervosa?

  • Anorexia nervosa’ means ‘loss of appetite for nervous reasons
  • Involves excessive dieting and weight loss
  • Obsessed with being thin.
  • Believe they are fat even though they are thin.
  • Anorexia nervosa occurs in 1% to 5% of the population.
  • About 90% to 95% are females between ages 13 and 30. However, anorexia nervosa can also occur in males and people of all ages.

What You Need To Know About Anorexic Nervosa?

  • Anorexia nervosa’ means ‘loss of appetite for nervous reasons
  • Involves excessive dieting and weight loss
  • Obsessed with being thin.
  • Believe they are fat even though they are thin.
  • Anorexia nervosa occurs in 1% to 5% of the population.
  • About 90% to 95% are females between ages 13 and 30. However, anorexia nervosa can also occur in males and people of all ages.

Famous People Died of Anorexia

 
Ana Carolina Reston: Brazilian model, who was 172cm tall and only weighed 40kg starved herself to death in 2006.


 













Margaux Hemingway: actress, model, suffered with bulimia




















Heidi Guenthe: A ballet dancer, After being told by a theater company that at 5’5″ in height and 96 lbs in weight she was too chunky, she developed an eating disorder. She collapsed and died at the age of 22 due to complications from her eating disorder.


















Maiara Galvao Vieira: A 14 year-old who weighed only 38kg was in the hospital for over a month, after having been in three other public hospitals and no one being able to diagnose te disease.























Eliana Ramos: having only to eat apples and tomatoes died at age of 21. Her grandmother found her dead in her bedroom.























Luisel Ramos: She was reported to have only lettuce leaves and diet coke three months before her death. She died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa.

Ways to stay slim and healthy

  • Exercise Daily: this is the best way to stay thin. Exercise for about 15-30mins a day, doing any exercise that you enjoy most. Walking, jogging, yoga, swimming…etc.
  • Always eat breakfast: Experts say that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. Skipping breakfast will eventually add extra calories to your body as you will end up binge eating more in the middle of the day.
  • Switch to brown bread or whole wheat bread instead of white bread
  • Start your lunch or dinner with a bowl of low calorie soup. So that you will not overeat later
  • Avoid eating in front of television. You tend to eat more without your knowledge
  • Reduce the intake of white food stuffs from your diet such as rice, sugar and salt
  • Drink plenty of water. Drinking eight glasses of water is said to be healthy
  • Instead of two large meals start eating three small meals a day
http://www.1designer-clothing.com/random-fashion-designer/anorexic-skinny-models-dea/951/

четвер, 26 серпня 2010 р.

How to become a better anorexic, baby... When you're feeling weak

 Here are some things which will help when your willpower is very feeble, to ward off the urge to eat, or worse, binge!

            Pinch your thigh and see how you don't need food, because you should be eating your own flesh all away from the inside first, before you are deserving of actual legitimate sustenance.
         
            Go to the library. You can research dieting or whatever, or you can read the classics, or some of the aforementioned listerature. Or you can do homework, or write letters, but the beauty of it is, since no food or drink is allowed, you'll have no choice but to abstain from a meal.
         
            Buy some baby teething gel and rub it on your tongue, to numb your tastebuds.
         
            If you're even considering eating, just hold your breath and count to 100. Chances are that you'll convince youself not to eat whatever it is you're craving in that time.
         
            The scent of coffee has been proven to lessen ones appetite.
         
            Chew the food but don't swallow it. Spit it in the bin.
         
            If you're feeling dangerous, plan out the next few hours so that you're occupied for every single minute. Write a list of things to do for every 15 minutes. eg. exercise, surf the internet, email your friends, clean a room, read a book.
         
            If you're feeling brave enough to face the kitchen, go there and throw out any potential binge foods. If you must, pour bleach/disinfectant/dishwashing detergent on the food, and then throw it away! (Anorexics are known for retrieving food from bins, or stealing food from strange places).
         
            Pinch your ear! Apply pressure to the front of the ear, one at a time. The front of the ear is apparently a pressure point, in the area that controls hunger.
         
            Let perfume replace chocolate. Every time you have a craving, or pass a bakery, sniff some Chanel no. 5. Apply it to a tissue and carry it with you. Smell has a powerful effect on appetite.
         
            Clean something. Cleaning something dirty can make you lose your appetite. The toilet, the litter box, under the kitchen sink, scrubbing out the garbage bin, anything grimy or smelly. The mess, along with the smell of the cleaner, can put you off food for a while.
         
            Become a teenage artist. Write anorexic poetry, tragic little verses about bones and stomachs and evil evil capsicums. Anorexics are ever so creative. Collect pictures of skinny girls. Stick them all in your notebook. Draw pictures of painful bony girls with tear stained faces and their head in their hands (their spines sticking out). This will take up most of your time.

           Hiding it

Anorexia is supposed to be a private and tortured place, dontcha know. Deny it at all costs. Pretend you have not noticed the pounds dropping off you. Don't be suspicious. Here are some relevant tips:

         
            Spend time making yourself look healthy. Drink lots of water and apply a fake tan. Wear makeup so that you have some colour, and keep your hair looking nice and shiny, take vitamins. Smile.
         
            Whenever you do decide to eat, do it in the company of others. That way they can't say they never see you touch food.
         
            On your way out, heat up a slice of pizza or prepare a snack to 'eat on the run'. Of course, you will dispose of the food at your first convenience.
         
            Leave a dirty plate lying around every so often for your parents to yell at you about.
         
            Drink out of opaque cups, and spit your food into it whilst preteding to drink. They'll never know.
         
            Eat really slowly because if everybody else is on their third slice of pizza, they'll assume you are too, even if you're still finishing your first.
         
            Sign out of hotmail and clear the history before you get off of the Internet. This will eliminate Autofill being ever so helpful while your Mum is researching aardvarks, and coming up with www.anorexicsanonymous.com for her. In short, don't leave traces lying around for others to find.


------------------------------------------------------

I trust that this guide to becoming a better anorexic will serve you well on your quest to being emaciated and ahem, gorgeous. Remember, think thin, and try not to faint too often or die.

http://everything2.com/title/How+to+become+a+better+anorexic

How to become a better anorexic, baby... day to day

Extreme Dieting

Now we can move on to the actual act of excessive dieting itself. First off we should establish clear limits. Make up rules you cannot deviate from. Only eat yellow foods on Monday, and brown foods on Tuesday. Or only eat every other day. Or only eat at night. Or only eat on days with the letter "u" in them. Or become a vegan. Or a fruitarian. Or follow your own version of a well known diet, such as the ever popular low carb diets, e.g., the Zone Diet, Atkin's Diet. Use your imagination. I knew a model who swore her secret was living on sushi, candy, oranges, cigarettes, and water. Another tip to try is to only allow yourself one food a day. You will get sick of the taste and therefore eat less due to boredom. Now, compile a list of "safe foods". Here is a fairly comprehensive list:

           Low Cal Jelly (or Jello, for you Americans)
           Celery - it is composed highly of water, it is crunchy, which is said to cause you to eat less, owing to the amount you have to chew it, it is considered a catabolic food.
           Carrots are also another safe vegetable (although most vegetables can be on your safe list, these are merely the safest of the safe).
           Salsa and mustard - dieting staples. You can dip vegetables in them, they are fat free and low cal, and salsa brings cravings to an abrupt halt. Spicy foods are also thought to fire up your metabolism.
           Vinegar - thought to thoroughly reduce your appetite. It is suggested you drink a tablespoon or two before each meal.
           Lemons dipped in a sugar substitute such as Splenda or Nutrasweet. (note: In some anorexia circles, even fruit is no good, besides oranges, which are a 50cal food).
           Broth (only 5 calories per cube!!)
           Egg white - much needed protein.
           Pickles.
           Lettuce - an absolute 'nothing' food.
           Cucumbers - very very low cal.
           and never underestimate the power of soup.
Safe foods are merely foods that are safe to eat if you are craving foods outside your set meals. They are extremely low cal, or no cal. As for your actual daily intake of food, most wannabe anorexics tend to stick within the 500 - 1000 calorie range depending on how much exercise they do. Never be shy when it comes to considering taking certain drugs to reduce or diminish appetite. Some antidepressant medication such as Wellbutrin have this effect, as well as Topamax, which is originally an anti-convulsive but has been and can be prescribed for things such as ADD and bipolar disorder. Steal your little brother's ADD medication. Dexedrine is gold when it comes to killing appetite. Just ignore the paranoia and nervousness that comes with it. Think about diet pills and supplements such as Metabolife and Ephedra.

 Day To Day

Now we move on to the ever important area of ritual and habits, tips & tricks, to get down to a science.

            Graze constantly throughout the day so that your metabolism never gets the chance to rest and become sluggish. Eating 100 calories five times a day is better than eating one meal consisting of 500 calories.
         
            Fool your metabolism by constantly changing the number of calories you consume daily. This will prevent your body going into starvation mode, meaning that lesser amounts of calories will make you gain weight. For instance, eat 500 calories on Monday, 100 on Tuesday, 800 on Wednesday, no calories on Thursday, and 400 calories on Friday.
         

            Get a full night's sleep, at least eight hours. Although staying up late does make you burn more calories, don't become sleep-deprived or your metabolism will become sleepy. Your appetite will even increase by 15%.
         
            Record everything you eat in your anorexia notebook. This serves to motivate you, as well as to be aware of all the extra calories you may not be aware you are consuming. It may also let you identify emotional or environmental triggers, such as boredom or sadness.
         
            Take vitamin pills frequently so your body doesn't crave nutrients, causing binges.
         
            Diet coke and other diet sodas cause that bubbly, full feeling in your stomach, for about 1 calorie per glass.
                    Brush your teeth and tongue all the time. The feeling in your mouth will ease cravings and additionally, food will taste yukky with toothpaste, so whats the point of eating it?

 Drink water like a fish. Drink a glass of water, or a diet soda, every hour on the hour. Drink water every time you have the urge to snack. Ice water is better because your body will burn more calories to heat it up. Drink water with meals to prevent overeating. Bear in mind that often we mistake thirst for hunger.
         
            Caffeine will speed up your metabolism. Have two or three servings a day, in the form of black sugarless coffee, or caffeine pills, or guarana. If stacked with ephedra and aspirin, a synergistic effect will occur that imitates the effects of speed or other amphetamines. Do be aware that this practice can be rather dangerous.
         
            Exercise. Not only will you burn off the calories you consume when you do eat, but it will increase your metabolism for some time afterwards. As well, the consequential muscle mass will increase the calories you burn at rest. It also suppresses appetite. Try running, or buy yourself a skipping rope.
         
            Stand up and move about constantly. Compulsively fidget. It does add up to an estimated extra 500 calories burned a day. Twitch your leg while studying, for example. Also, sit up straight - you'll burn more calories.
         
            Have a very busy and active schedule. It will burn more calories than sitting in your room thinking about not eating, and make sure you don't have enough time to binge.
         
            Find a something other than food to satisfy your oral fixation. Choices include things like smoking, chewing gum, water, iced tea, sugarless mints, and diet coke.
         
            Put a small coin in a jar every time you resist a craving, or exercise when majorly exhausted, etc. This will motivate you, build up confidence in your starving abilities, and keep track of your successes. As well as give you extra cash to splurge on some fantastical treat when you reach your first major weight loss goal.
         
            The type of music you listen to while you eat affects how much and how quickly you consume. The faster the music, the more you eat. Try to listen to nice slow music when you eat.
         
            Eat sweets and the foods you crave early on in the day. This will give you more time to burn them off and it will eliminate cravings later.
         
            Eat while in the front of the mirror naked. You will be completely repulsed, and repelled from the food. This is a good thing.
         
            Feel your hunger..don't try to suppress it. If you're hungry that means you're losing weight; you WANT to be hungry. If you're not then you're not doing it right. In time you will get a wonderful high off of being hungry and thoroughly enjoy the sensation. Hunger is not your enemy! The sooner this is understood, the sooner you will reach your goals.
        
            Did you know that there are 2 pounds of dead skin on you right now!!?! Thats right! 2 POUNDS! ...if you're underweight or in starvation mode your body does not "shed" its skin the way it should. It holds on to it. Use an exfoliator for your face, and a loofah brush or scrub for your body.

            Make a stack of magazines that weighs the amount you want to lose. As you lose, take off the appropriate amount of magazines. Seeing the weight like that may help you realise what a difference it will make when it is all off.

How to become a better anorexic, baby

What follows is not my genuine advice on becoming a better anorexic, rather it is a culmination of all the `tips & tricks' you find poured into pro-anorexia webpages, in all their ill-informed and sometimes just outright wrong glory. What follows is an assemblage of all the bullshit that goes along with being a wannabe anorexic, all the myths, all the rituals, the habits, the psychological damage these girls willingly inflict upon themselves for the sake of being blade-thin. I'd also like to point out, for further clarification, that any time I appear to be making a mockery, I am not referring to anorexics in general but pro-anorexics  only, wannabe anorexics. Anorexia is a disease, and I do not in any way wish to trivialise it. So without further ado, I present to you:
How to become a better anorexic, baby
An anorexic mind.
First of all, let's work on the psychology first. Be sure to fuck up your relationship with food from the start. You want to make yourself as neurotic as possible about food, eating, kitchens, cutlery, refrigerators, restaurants, and hey, why not stretch this out even further and start hating the actual source of foods, in other words the actual animals and plants. I myself am utterly opposed to factories. Any kind of factory. Even pillow factories, hell they're all the same. But you! Spread those bad thoughts! Hate that chicken!!!! Unless of course, you're going for the sympathetic, oh the poor animals, vegan slant. That's a good one too. 

Firstly, reaffirm your mission. Immortalise it. Buy a fat, blank notebook, this will become your own personal anorexic sanctuary of sorts. Write down WHY you want to lose weight. Be sure to include things like how you will feel when you're 10lbs lighter, the glorious clothes you will fit into, an occasion that you would like to be thinner for like your sixteenth birthday, etc. Give yourself a final goal, and break it up into several, smaller, goalpoints. For example, if you weigh 140lbs and would like to eventually be 90lbs, list points along the way which signify a victory for you. For example, 130lbs, and then 115lbs, then 110lbs, then 100lbs, and so on. Re-read this again and again for inspiration. You will be using this notebook later to create tackytown anorexia-inspired collages and other paraphernalia.

Visualisation. Following the same strain as NLP, or Neuro Linguistic Programming, we must use the principles of association to retrain your consciousness, and sub-consciousness, to turn food into one of the greater evils of the world. (Read: the greatest evil!!) Start by associating food with disgusting things. For your first ever fast, it may be helpful to draw pictures of juicy red apples, somehow morphing into giant dead rotting pigs. Plaster these all around your house, preferably on the food itself. Never underestimate the power of images. Put pictures of fat girls on your fridge, or better yet, pictures of yourself; you're pretty fat. Conversely, stick pictures of rakish models everywhere you can see them, for inspiration, and a bit of productive self-loathing. Also, practise writing things like "I'm fat" over and over. You want to drill this into your brain. "I will be thin" is a good one, as well as other "I will" affirmations. These are positive statements and very conducive to big time weight loss.
 
Now create a list of suitable punishments either for thinking of food, or for caving in and eating food itself. A good one to try is to keep a rubber band on your hand and flick your skin whenever you think of eating. Eventually you will have a swollen hand, and a shrunken body; you will have ceased thinking of food so much. Other punishments include ridiculous amounts of exercise, purging, self-mutilation, isolation, basic denial of necessary comforts such as blankets on a cold night, or shelter when it is raining.. or simply menial, disgusting tasks such as cleaning the bathroom. Remember, you need discipline.

Invent pain and hassles for yourself. Trick yourself into believing your life sucks. Be mean to people so that they instigate fights, just to make you constantly on edge, or nervous, so you cant eat. After all, you'll be light-headed and dizzy, and irritable from not eating, so you have an excuse. I used to love when dad got mad at me because it meant I was so upset I could not eat. Become an angst ridden teenager. You'll be making yourself nauseous from worry and self hatred in no time.

Find another anorexic to consort with. Whether this be in real life, or on the internet. You can swap tips and indulge in your little sordid anorexia world together, force each other to exercise, pat each other on the back when you reach goals, etc. You want to completely surround yourself with all thoughts of anorexia. Find pro-anorexia websites, or create your own. Sign up for one of the dozens of pro-anorexic mailing lists at Yahoo! and you'll be bombarded daily with like minded individuals.

Now, immerse yourself further in anorexia propaganda, read anorexia or otherwise 'thin' inspired literature, listen to anorexic music, watch as many triggering films as you can get your delicate little mitts on, look up to very thin hollywood stars and supermodels. Also, visit as many of the aforementioned pro-anorexia sites as you can to get a bunch of quotes and 'mantras' to write in your anorexia notebook, and repeat inside your head daily. I have compiled a list of such sources of 'thinspiration'.
Thinspiration
Triggering music
    This is essential. You must familiarise yourself with the very teenage and angsty artists and be sure to play the music over and over to thoroughly depress yourself. Ones to keep in mind are:

Fiona Apple - try the song "Paper Bag" ... Hunger hurts but starving works...
silverchair - try the song "Ana's Song (Open Fire)" ... and I need you now somehow, and I need you now somehow ... on my knees for you... in my head the flesh seems thicker...
Juliana Hatfield - try the song "Feed Me"... Oh baby if only you knew, I'm down to 102...
Tori Amos - try the song "Jackie's Strength" ... You're only popular with anorexia, so I turn myself inside out, in hopes someone will see...
Anorexic mantras
    You must collect as many of these as possible. Write them in your anorexia notebook, memorise them, let them comfort you. Some examples are:

"An imperfect body reflects an imperfect person."
"You will be tempted quite frequently, and you will have to choose whether you will enjoy yourself hugely in the 20 minutes or so that you will be consuming the excess calories, or whether you will dislike youself cordially for 2 or 3 days for your lack of willpower."
"I'm not starving myself...I'm perfecting my emptiness."
"I can get thinner. I can cut it all off. I can wear low slung Levi's and crop tops and long straight dresses like willowy models, and I gasp with the breathlessness of being airborne. I can fly and be free. Jesus! I never realised how easy it was!"
"Nothing tastes as good as thin feels."
"The greasy fry, it cannot lie, its truth is written on your thigh," as said by Quinn from Daria
Devour Literature, not food
    Words and text are very very triggering when it comes to not eating. For one thing, it gives you a world to inhabit, your very own private, magnificent anorexia world which nobody else around you can touch, and you shall have characters to understand you. You will be so riveted that you will not need to eat. Books to check out include:

              * "The Best Little Girl In The World" by Steven Levenkron
              * "Wasted" by Marya Hornbacher
              * "The Fountainhead" by Ayn Rand - not about anorexia per se, but Dominique Francon is the f*cking epitome of ethereal, insubstantial, bony grace.
              * "I Am An Artichoke" by Lucy Frank
              * "Starving For Attention" by Cherry Boone O'Neill
              * "Hunger Scream" by Ivy Ruckman
              * "Diary Of An Eating Disorder" by Chelsea Smith and Beverly Runyon
              * "My Sister's Bones" by Cathi Hanauer
              * "Stick Figure" by Lori Gottlieb
              * "Eve's Apple" by Jonathan Rosen

Thinspiring Films and TV Shows
    These might be about anorexia itself, or it might simply be glamorous and include very thin beautiful people. Movies and television programmes I know others find thinspiring are:

              * Girl, Interrupted
              * For The Love Of Nancy
              * Ally McBeal
Role models
    You need somebody to idolise. You must research him or her to the bones and become as close to her as possible. Become obsessed. Some suitable examples include those in the following list, who are either very skinny, or have, or have had anorexia:

              Kate Moss - nineties waif
              Angelina Jolie - skinny sexy actress, e.g. Girl, Interrupted and Gia
              Christina Ricci - actress, had anorexia
              Calista Flockhart - Ally McBeal
              Lara Flynn Boyle - glamorous and snobby, never eats
              Tracey Gold - actress who suffered from anorexia
              Karen Carpenter - musician and classic anorexic
              Portia de Rossi - actress on Ally McBeal who went through a stage of dangerous dieting
              Geri Halliwell - formerly Ginger Spice, engaged in a 'thin war' with:
              Victoria Beckham - formerly Posh Spice
              Courtney Cox - actress on Friends, bony and gaunt
              wiggy - iconoclastic model
              Jodie Kidd - impossibly thin model
              Audrey Hepburn - quintessential class, very petite

This should be enough to sufficiently fuck up and cloud your perceptions. Above all, convince yourself you are above others, a hero, owing to your spectacular powers of restraint. Feel elitist. Feel as though you are somehow super-human for resisting the urge to eat. Feel better than the other mere mortals who dig in to their cereal and their donuts. Believe in the power of starving as though it were a religion.

середа, 25 серпня 2010 р.

Related links for anorexia nervosa

General information about anorexia nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa – Covers the signs, causes, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of anorexia. Includes information on nutritional and dietary therapies. (University of Maryland Medical Center)
Negative Voices – Description of the negative, self-critical “voices” that tell anorexics that they’re powerless and worthless. Includes tips on dealing with them. (The Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders)
Distorted Perceptions – Article on the distorted perceptions that anorexics have about themselves and their bodies. (The Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders)

Anorexia signs and symptoms

Noticing the Signs and Symptoms – Detailed list of the signs and symptoms of anorexia nervosa, including physical, emotional, and behavioral red flags. (The Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders)
Killer Workout – Questions and answers on activity anorexia, in which weight loss is achieved through strenuous, compulsive exercise. Includes a discussion of symptoms. (Psychology Today)

Anorexia treatment and therapy

Promising treatments for anorexia and bulimia – Description of a treatment option for anorexia that involves the entire family; it helps affected teens start eating again. (American Psychological Association)
Seeking Treatment: What Does Treatment Involve? (PDF) – Detailed guide to treatment for eating disorders, including questions to ask a potential treatment provider. (National Eating Disorders Association)
Eating Disorders Survival Guide (PDF)– Provides step-by-step recommendations for finding appropriate anorexia treatment and insurance coverage. (National Eating Disorders Association)

Online resources for finding anorexia treatment providers

Eating Disorder Treatment Finder – Searchable directory of anorexia treatment providers, including doctors, therapists, dieticians, support groups, and inpatient or residential programs. (The Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders)
EDReferral.com – Comprehensive, easy-to-search database of anorexia and eating disorder treatment providers. (The Eating Disorder Referral and Information Center)
Melinda Smith, M.A., Ellen Jaffe-Gill, M.A, Robert Segal, M.A., and Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., contributed to this article. Last modified on: June 09

Anorexia treatment and recovery

While the physical and emotional consequences of anorexia can be devastating, the good news is that it’s a treatable condition. With the right treatment team, people with anorexia can and do get better. They can regain their health, learn to eat normally again, and develop healthier attitudes about food and their bodies.
Since anorexia involves both mind and body, both attitudes and behaviors, a team approach is often best. Those who may be involved in anorexia treatment include medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dieticians. The participation and support of family members also makes a big difference in anorexia treatment success.

TREATING ANOREXIA involves three components:

  • restoring the person to a healthy weight;
  • treating the psychological issues related to the eating disorder; and
  • reducing or eliminating behaviors or thoughts that lead to disordered eating, and preventing relapse.
Source: National Institute of Mental Health
If you’re interested in seeking anorexia treatment, a visit to the doctor is the first step. In order to make an official diagnosis, the doctor will conduct a complete assessment of you or your loved one’s symptoms, eating behaviors, mental state, and physical health. The doctor will also rule out all possible health conditions that could be causing the weight loss. If anorexia is diagnosed, you will work with the doctor to develop the right treatment plan for your needs.

Medical treatment for anorexia

The first priority in anorexia treatment is to address and stabilize any serious health issues. Hospitalization may be necessary to prevent starvation, suicide, or a medical crisis. Dangerously thin anorexics may also need to be hospitalized until they reach a less critical weight. Outpatient treatment is an option when the patient is not in immediate medical danger.
Getting back to a normal weight is no easy task, especially for those being treated against their will. Fear of weight gain is extraordinarily frightening to people with anorexia, and forced weight gain even more so. But research shows that the closer body weight is to normal at the end of treatment, the greater the chance of recovery, so weight restoration should be a top treatment goal.

Nutritional therapy for anorexia

A second component of anorexia therapy is nutritional counseling. In nutritional counseling, a nutritionist or dietician teaches the patient about healthy eating, proper nutrition, and balanced meals. The nutritionist also helps the person develop and follow meal plans that include enough calories to reach or maintain a normal, healthy weight.

Counseling and therapy for anorexia

Therapy plays a crucial role in anorexia treatment. Its goals are to identify the negative thoughts and feelings about weight and the self that are behind the anorexic behaviors, and to replace them with healthier and less distorted attitudes. Another important goal is to teach the anorexic how to deal with difficult emotions, relationship problems, and stress in a productive, rather than a self-destructive, way.
Types of Therapy for Anorexia Treatment
Cognitive therapy Explores the critical and unhealthy thoughts underlying anorexia. The focus is on increasing self-awareness, challenging distorted beliefs, and improving self-esteem and sense of control. Cognitive therapy also involves education about anorexia.
Behavior therapy Promotes healthy eating behaviors through the use of rewards, reinforcements, self-monitoring, and goal setting. Teaches the patient to recognize anorexia triggers and deal with them using relaxation techniques and coping strategies.
Family therapy Examines the family dynamics that may contribute to anorexia or interfere with recovery. Often includes some therapy sessions without the anorexic patient—a particularly important element when the person with anorexia denies having an eating disorder.
Group therapy Allows people with anorexia to talk with each other in a supervised setting. Helps to reduce the isolation many anorexics may feel. Group members can support each other through recovery and share their experiences and advice.

Helping a person with anorexia

Encouraging an anorexic friend or family member to get treatment is the most caring and supportive thing you can do. But because of the defensiveness and denial involved in anorexia, you’ll need to tread lightly. Waving around articles about the dire effects of anorexia or declaring “You’ll die if you don’t eat!” probably won’t work. A better approach is to gently express your concerns and let the person know that you’re available to listen. If your loved one is willing to talk, listen without judgment, no matter how out of touch the person sounds.
You can also seek advice from a health professional, even if your friend or family member won’t. And you can bring others—from peers to parents—into the circle of support. You can also help by being a good role model for healthy eating, exercising, and body image. Don’t make negative comments about your own body or anyone else’s. And whatever you do: don’t turn into the food police. A person with anorexia needs support, not an authority figure standing over the table with a calorie counter.

Signs and symptoms of anorexia

People with anorexia often hide their condition, so the warning signs are not always easy to spot. Furthermore, anorexics will typically try to explain away their disordered eating behaviors when confronted. But as anorexia progresses, the signs and symptoms become increasingly obvious and difficult to deny.

Eating and food behavior signs and symptoms

  • Dieting despite being thin – Follows a severely restricted diet. Eats only certain low-calorie foods. Bans “bad” foods such as carbohydrates and fats.
  • Obsession with calories, fat grams, and nutrition – Reads food labels, measures and weighs portions, keeps a food diary, reads diet books.
  • Pretending to eat or lying about eating – Hides, plays with, or throws away food to avoid eating. Makes excuses to get out of meals (“I had a huge lunch” or “My stomach isn’t feeling good.”).
  • Preoccupation with food – Eats very little, but constantly thinks about food. May cook for others, collect recipes, read food magazines, or make meal plans.
  • Strange or secretive food rituals – Often refuses to eat around others or in public places. May eat in rigid, ritualistic ways (e.g. cutting food “just so”, chewing food and spitting it out, using a specific plate).

Appearance and body image signs and symptoms

  • Dramatic weight loss – Rapid, drastic weight loss with no medical cause.
  • Feeling fat, despite being underweight – May complain about being overweight in general or just “too fat” in certain places such as the stomach, hips, or thighs.
  • Fixation on body image – Obsessed with weight, body shape, or clothing size. Frequent weigh-ins and concern over tiny fluctuations in weight.
  • Harshly critical of appearance – Spends a lot of time in front of the mirror checking for flaws. There’s always something to criticize. They’re never thin enough.
  • Denies being too thin – Refuses to believe that his or her low body weight is a problem, but may try to conceal it (drinking a lot of water before being weighed, wearing baggy or oversized clothes).

Purging signs and symptoms

  • Using diet pills, laxatives, or diuretics – Abuses water pills, herbal appetite suppressants, prescription stimulants, ipecac syrup, and other drugs for weight loss.
  • Throwing up after eating – Frequently disappears after meals or goes to the bathroom. May run the water to disguise sounds of vomiting or reappear smelling like mouthwash or mints.
  • Compulsive exercising – Follows a punishing exercise regimen aimed at burning calories. Will exercise through injuries, illness, and bad weather. Works out extra hard after bingeing or eating something “bad.” 

Anorexia causes and risk factors

What sets someone on a course toward self-starvation? It’s easy to blame a culture that equates slenderness with beauty and success and portrays stick-thin women as the physical ideal, but eating disorders have been around for centuries.
Although our culture’s idealization of thinness plays a powerful role in the development of anorexia, there are other contributing factors, including genetics, individual personality traits, and family environment.

Biological causes of anorexia

Research suggests that a genetic predisposition to anorexia may run in families. If a girl has a sibling with anorexia, she is 10 to 20 times more likely than the general population to develop anorexia herself. Brain chemistry also appears to play a significant role. People with anorexia tend to have high levels of cortisol, the brain hormone most related to stress, and decreased levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, which are associated with feelings of well-being.

Major risk factors for anorexia nervosa

  • Body dissatisfaction
  • Dieting
  • Low self-esteem
  • Perfectionism
  • Childhood sexual abuse
  • Family history of eating disorders

Psychological causes of anorexia

People with anorexia are often perfectionists and overachievers. They’re the “good” daughters and sons who do what they’re told, excel in everything they do, and focus on pleasing others. But while anorexics may appear to have it all together on the surface, inside they feel helpless, inadequate, and worthless. They view themselves through a harshly critical lens. If they’re not perfect, they’re a total failure.

Family and social pressures

In addition to the cultural pressure to be thin, there are other family and social pressures that can contribute to anorexia. This includes participation in an activity that demands slenderness, such as ballet, gymnastics, or modeling. It also includes having parents who are overly controlling, put a lot of emphasis on looks, diet themselves, or criticize their children’s bodies and appearance. Stressful life events—such as the onset of puberty, a breakup, or going away to school—can also trigger anorexia.

Effects of anorexia

The severe calorie restriction of anorexia has dire physical effects. When the body doesn’t get the fuel it needs to function normally, it goes into starvation mode. It slows down to conserve energy and turns in on itself for essential nutrients. In essence, the body begins to consume itself. As the self-starvation continues and more body fat is lost, the medical complications pile up.

The first physical signs and effects of anorexia are:

  • Loss of menstrual periods
  • Lack of energy and weakness
  • Feeling cold all the time
  • Dry, yellowish skin
  • Constipation and abdominal pain
  • Restlessness and insomnia
  • Dizziness, fainting, and headaches
  • Growth of fine hair all over the body and face
Source: WomensHealth.gov
If anorexia continues unchecked, the health problems only get worse. Over time, anorexia causes hair loss, infertility, stunted growth, osteoporosis, heart problems, kidney failure, and death. Other effects of anorexia include tooth decay and gum damage from malnutrition and vomiting, and damage to the esophagus and larynx from acid reflux. Anorexia can also lead to depression, severe mood swings, and thoughts of suicide.

Maria’s Story

Seventeen-year-old Maria has been on one diet or another since she was in junior high. She recently lost 10 pounds from an already slender frame after becoming a strict vegetarian. Her parents are concerned about the weight loss, but Maria insists that she’s just under stress at school. Meanwhile, her vegetarian diet is becoming stricter by the day.
Maria obsessively counts calories, measures food portions, and weighs herself at least twice a day. She refuses to eat at restaurants, in the school cafeteria, or anywhere else in public, and she lives on salad dressed with vinegar, rice cakes, and sugar-free Jell-O. Maria also has a large stash of fat-free candy in her room. She allows herself to indulge as long as she goes for a run right afterwards.